Someone you know wants to get fit. Give them some advice.
- You should join the local gym.
- You should take up jogging
- You should walk to work, You ought to eat healthier food
(You could join a local gym - THE ADVICE is not direct but implied)
You could - POSSIBIlITY.
Someone has asked about your musical abilities when you were a child.
Tell them about your past abilities.
"How good were you at music when you were a child?"
When I was a child, I could play the piano.
A friend has asked to smoke in your bedroom. What do they ask?
May I / Can I + smoke ?
(asking for permission)
Someone has asked you where your friend Mark is. You don't know for sure but you have one or two ideas.
He could be in the bathroom.
He might be in the garden.
Someone has offered to give you a lift home.
Tell them it is not necessary as you have your bike.
a) You don't have to drive me home because I have a bike
b) thanks, but ...
Thanks for the offer , but ...
You hear the telephone ring. You are sure that's it's your friend Sam
because he said he would ring at this time. Tell your flatmate this as you go to answer it.
When you are sure of something "That MUST be .."
That must be Sam.
You don't have to answer the phone. I'll answer it. It must be Sam.
Complete the sentences using a modal where appropriate.
- The present prime minister won't win the next election because....
People don't support him after the scandal.
- Jamie doesn't have to go to school tomorrow because
His doctor recommended that he stay at home.
- You mustn't be home late tonight because...
Tomorrow you have to get up early.
- I can't read the instructions on the side of this box because .....
It was damaged by salt water.
- This painting could be of some kind of animal because ...
I can see something that looks like an animals tail.
- You've got to start your revision this weekend because ....
your exam will take place in two weeks.
- I could play the guitar years ago.
- A friend has asked to smoke in your bedroom.
What question do they ask?
Would you mind if I smoke.
Do you mind if I smoke.
- Some has asked you where your friend Mark is.
You don't know for sure but you have one or two ideas.
Tell them your ideas.
He could be at home ,
He might be in the office.
- Someone has offered you a lift home.
Tell them it's not necessary as you have your bike.
Oh , you don't have to do that,
I've got my bike with me.
- You hear the phone ring and you are sure it's your friend Sam.
(He said he would ring at this time) Tell your flatmate this
That must be Sam,
he said he would ring.
The head teacher gives permission for a student
to leave school early.
You may leave now.
It's necessary for everyone to bring their calculator
to the Maths exams: Tell your friend.
You have to bring your calculator
to the exam.
You must bring your calculator with you
to the Maths exam
Is it correct for her to say .. "I wish you would be taller"
Pronunciation and tone changing meaning
Watch your tone!
But I would like to add one thing I stumbled upon in thought
just this past week.
Tone is phonemic in English:
I could go. = It's possible to go. I can.
I could go. = It's possible to go, but perhaps
there's a reason why I won't... (or) I can, but...
Fill in the gaps in this letter using one of the modal verbs in the box.
You may need to use them more than once.
can - might/may - can't - should - must
I have just opened your letter. You said
you sent one before but it (1)
have got lost in the post! The garage also delivered your little present.
You (2) ____________
not have spent so much money on me. It's absolutely ridiculous.
In fact, you (3) ____________
bothered as I already have a Porsche! I
possibly accept it and have asked them to return it to you.
You (5) ____________
try to be reasonable, Alison. You
possibly be in love with me as you claim to be.
You don't know me at all and
possibly have any idea what I'm like. If you got to know me,
you (8) ____________
even find you didn't like me at all. I (9)
be quite irritating sometimes, I promise you.
I'm afraid I (10) ____________
ask you not to write to me again.
This (11) ____________
seem harsh but that's the way it
Grammar plus: modals (advanced features)
Match each of the following sentences to the idea they express.
- Couples can miss each other when separated.
- She could read before she started school.
- I've got to finish this work before I go to bed.
- You can't smoke in here.
- You ought to take better care of your dog.
- You must have had a great holiday. You look so well.
- You needn't come to the the airport with me.
- Can I use your car to pick up some shelves?
- theoretical possibility
- weak obligation
- strong obligation
- lack of obligation
What other modals can be used to express the ideas below?
EXAMPLE: permission - can, may
Go back to the 'Sweet Nothings' article and
find three examples of modals.
What ideas/meanings do they express?
Some of the sentences below are incorrect or don't make sense.
Change them as necessary.
- You don't have to bring a calculator
into the exam room. If you do, you will automatically fail.
- They might not have known that the main road was closed.
- Do I may leave early today? I'll come in at 8 a.m. tomorrow.
- You would better shut the window before you catch cold.
- Can't you to play any musical instrument?
- You might as well go home now.
There's nothing more you can do here.
- You should stay up until 11p.m.
tonight as it's your birthday but then you must go to bed.
- Do we have to visit our cousins on Sunday?
- Try as I might, I couldn't make him understand
my point of view.
- The gift is beautiful but I couldn't possibly accept it.
- She can have misunderstood what you were trying to say.
Why else would she react so strangely?
- Oughtn't we to have invited Pete and Sarah to the party?
- By the end of this month I hope
I can use this new computer programme
without any difficulty.
Beginning with the words given,
make the second sentence in each case below mean approximately the same as the first sentence.
- It's not a good idea to drink coffee just before you go to bed.
- I am as happy as it is possible for me to be.
I couldn't ____________
- It's possible for it to get very cold here in winter.
- It's impossible that they took the car without asking.
- It's essential for all students to register by Wednesday at 11a.m.
- It really wasn't necessary for you
to put up those shelves.
I am glad you did, although
- Perhaps they didn't realise how late it was.
- It would be inadvisable to book the flight until you are sure you can go.
- Isn't it necessary to switch
the heating on manually?
It doesn't have a timer.
- It wouldn't have been right for me to let you pay for everything.
- It was wrong of her to call me all those names.
advice given about 'first dates'
in a teenage magazine.
Decide which of the alternative modals
in each case is possible. More than one may be correct.
Advice for first dates
Choose which modals, from the list, are possible in the context of this
Imagine you've met someone you really like but you don't know them very well.
You have finally decided that you want to ring them up and ask them out but
are feeling pretty nervous about it all.
Actually, there are a number of things you
(1) ____________ can/would/may
can / may
do to make the whole process a little less painful than it sometimes is.
First of all, you really
(2) ____________ ought/must/can
ought TO / can
have some definite suggestions as to where you
(3) ____________ must/could/might
might / could
There's nothing worse than getting into a conversation like this and then spending ages
trying to work out what you would both like to do.
If they would like to go out with you, then you
(4) ____________ must/must have/might
must have / might
make sure that you agree an easy place to meet up.
Standing waiting at different exits to a tube station for hours
(5) ____________ could/must/can
can / could
be a bit of a passion killer on a first date!
Next, when you're getting ready for the evening,
don't try too hard.
(6) ____________ haven't/didn't have to/shouldn't
haven't / didn't have to
go out and get new clothes for the occasion.
Wear clothes you know and like and feel comfortable in.
If your date is a bit late, don't get anxious.
(7) ____________ must/can/might
must / can
have been held up unavoidably.
(8) ____________ should/need/might
should / need
be trying to make some kind of point, but either way just relax.
If you're feeling nervous about what you
(9) ____________ could/can/might
could / might
try thinking of a few topics which you think will
be of interest to the other person.
During the evening, whatever you do, show interest in the other person.
Don't spend ages talking about yourself. You
(10) ____________ have got to/should/could
have got to / should
for example, ask them about their family, their work/study, their interests etc.
Check if they
(11) ____________ have to/need to/ought to
have to / need to
be home at a certain time.
Try and make sure that you do both get home on time.
There's nothing worse than upset parents to ruin a great evening!
If you follow this advice you
(12) ____________ can/should/may
can / may
find that you
(13) ____________ can't have/shouldn't leave/needn't have
worried after all......and you
(14) ____________ have to/can/might
have to / can
even manage to fix up a second date!
Now write your own short article giving advice about what to do when
you are invited round for dinner at your girlfriend or boyfriend's house
to meet their parents for the first time.
Include as many modals as possible.