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Chapter - 1


Archimedes is considered one of the three greatest mathematicians of all time along with Newton and Gauss.


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As queen of ancient Egypt, Cleopatra is one of the most famous female rulers in history. Officially, she is known as Cleopatra VII. She was the seventh woman in her family to have the name. But she is the one that made the name famous. Her family had ruled Egypt for more than 100 years before she was born, around 69 BC. One of her ancestors was ptolemy, a Greek general who helped Alexander the Great conquer Egypt in 332 BC. ptolemy became king of Egypt after Alexander’s death in 323 BC.


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The Roman Invasion of Britain

The Romans were empire builders on a mission to spread their civilization to barbarian lands. One such was Britain, which consisted of various unruly Celtic tribes in conflict with each other (a situation t.he Romans exploited). Julius Caesar's attempts, in 54 and 55 BC, to occupy Britain were defeated by bad weather. Augustus threatened, but never carried out, invasions in 34, 27 and 25 BC. In AD 43, the unpopular Emperor Claudius needed to improve his image in Rome: an invasion of Britain would bring favourable publicity.


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Before the Roman invasion of AD 43 the site of London was a marshy patch of wasteland through which the River Thames flowed. As the Romans advanced northwards, they came to a point where they could ford the river. A fort was built on the north side, and work began on a network of roads.


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Boudica (Queen of the Britons - AD 60)

A Briton woman of the royal family....... In stature she was very tall, in appearance most terrifying, in the glance of her eye most fierce, and her voice was harsh; a great mass of the tawniest hair fell of her hips; around her neck was a large golden necklace.....' (The Roman historian Cassius Dio on Boudicca, some 150 years after her death)


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Roman Britain

The Normans weren't the first people who invaded Britain. In 55 BC the great Roman Julius Caesar brought an army across the sea from France. For four hundred years, England was part of the Roman Empire. When the Romans first arrived, there were many different groups of people. Each group had its own king.
They didn't think of themselves as 'British', but the Romans
called the people from all these groups 'Britons'.


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Hadrian's Wall

Hadrian's Wall was a 73-mile 15-foot-high wall built by the Romans under the Emperor Hadrian to separate the barbarians in Scotland (Britannia Inferior, as the Romans called it) from the newly civilized Britons to the south (Britannia Superior), and to prevent raids from the north.


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King Harold 1022-

After his fathers death in 1053 Harold Godwinson became the Earl of Wessex and was a powerful nobleman in his own right. He became a respected and skilled warrior and leader. One description reads, this Englishman was very tall and handsome, remarkable for his physical strength, his courage and eloquence, his ready jests and acts of valour.


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The Norman Invasion of 1066

It was 1066, and Edward, King of England, was dead. He had no children. The most important people in the country met to choose a new king. They chose Harold. Harold wasn't a blood relative of King Edward, but he was the Queen's brother, He was a popular man for the job.


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Henry VIII - Tudor monarch of England

King Henry VIII, Tudor monarch, ruler of England in sixteenth-century Renaissance England, had six wives. The


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Ivan the Terrible

Ivan Chetvyorty, Vasilyevich; 25 August 1530 - 28 March 1584), known in English as Ivan the Terrible was Grand prince of Moscow from 1533. His long reign saw the conquest of the Khanates of Kazan, Astrakhan, and Siberia, transforming Russia into a multiethnic and multiconfessional state spanning almost one billion acres, approximately 130 km2 (50 sq mi) a day.


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Sir Francis Drake

"There must be a beginning of any great matter, but the continuing unto the end until it be thoroughly finished yields the true glory."


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Newton was an English physicist and mathematician, and the greatest scientist of his era.


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The Great Fire of London (1666)

The Great Fire of London, a major
that swept through the central parts of London from Sunday, 2 September to Wednesday, 5 September 1666, was one of the major events in the history of England.


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Admiral Lord Nelson

"You must hate a Frenchman as you do the devil." The most famous English Admiral, who is celebrated by Nelsons Column in Trafalgar Square named after the famous sea battle off the Southern Spanish coast where he defeated 33 French and Spanish ships with 27 Royal Navy ships.


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"Never give in, never give in, never; never; never; never in nothing, great or small, large or petty never give in except to convictions of honor and good sense" Soldier, statesman, politician, author. Victor in the Battle of Britain 9 July to 31 October 1940. Winner of the Nobel Literary prize.


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Chapter - 2


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Chapter - 3

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